linux commands for beginners

What is Linux ?

The kernel of an operating system is Linux. UNIX is a computer operating system that you might have heard about.

Linux, after all, is a UNIX clone. Linus Torvalds, on the other hand, built it entirely from scratch. Linux is free and open-source, which ensures that you can modify it and re-distribute it under your own name.

There are a variety of Linux distributions to choose from :–

Ubuntu Linux

Ubuntu is a complete Linux operating system. This download is distributed and has both group and technological assistance.

The Ubuntu project is based upon the Ubuntu Manifestos principles of free software, of opening software programs to people in their mother tongue, of being disabled, and of empowering people to alter and change software in whatever manner they find necessary.

  1. Ubuntu is still free of charge, except with the Enterprise Version there is no extra charge and we make our best possible job at the same free conditions for all.
  2. Ubuntu provides the earlier version of the Free Software community’s translation and compatibility facilities, to make Ubuntu available for as many users as possible.
  3. Every six months, a new version is available. Ubuntu is releases with daily and regular update cycles. The deployment of Ubuntu long-term support (LTS) every two to two years is possible and will be financed for 5 years. The development or non-LTS launches of Ubuntu Updates are subsidized for a total of 9 months each.
  4. Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development. We encourage people to use open source software, improve it and pass it on.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® is the world’s leading enterprise Linux platform. It’s an open source operating system (OS). It’s the foundation from which you can scale existing apps—and roll out emerging technologies—across bare-metal, virtual, container, and all types of cloud environments.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a Linux distribution made by Red Hat for the commercial market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is available in server models for x86-64, Power ISA, ARM64, and IBM Z, as well as a desktop edition for x86-64.

The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name originally came onto the market as “Red Hat Linux Advanced Server”. In 2003, Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to “Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS” and added two more variants, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS.

Linux Mint

Linux Mint is an Ubuntu similarly Linux distribution that features a wide range of free, open-source applications. For those that want to use proprietary features such as multimedia codecs, it may include complete out-of-the-box multimedia support.

Linux Mint relies heavily on free and open-source applications. Up to and including version 17.3, the installation process contained certain proprietary applications, such as plug-ins and codecs that included by default Adobe Flash, MP3, and DVD playback.

Version 18’s installer no longer featured any proprietary software. Since version 18.1, the software also provided the option to use third-party and proprietary programs. (graphics and Wi-Fi drivers, Flash, MP3 and other codecs).

Linux Mint includes a variety of applications, including LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Hex Chat, Pidgin, Transmission, and the VLC media player.


Debian is an open source release for Ian Murdock’s project. The Debian Community service project was released on August 16, 1993. Debian GNU/Linux is another name for Debian.

Debian’s first stable update (1.1) was on June 17, 1996, and its first update (0.01) was on September 15, 1993. The most common version for personal computers and servers is Debian Stable.

Debian also serves as the foundation for several other distributions, most notably Ubuntu.

Debian is one of the first operating systems to be built on the Linux kernel.

A team of volunteers led by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, and the Debian Free Software Rules manage the project over the Internet.

New distributions are constantly modified, and the next contender is launched after a time-based freeze.


Fedora is a Fedora Project Linux distribution. Red Hat, an IBM subsidiary, is mainly supporting this, though other companies provide extra funding.

This includes applications licensed under a variety of proprietary and open-source licenses, and it aspires to be in the forefront of free technology. This is the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution’s upstream root, and CentOS followed suit.

With the introduction of Fedora 30, there have been five editions available:

Workstation for personal computers, Server for clients, CoreOS for cloud computing, Silverblue for an immutable workspace specialized to container-based workflows, and IoT for IoT applications.

Linux is mostly using in server environments. Linux servers control approximately 90% of the internet. This is due to the fact that Linux is fast, stable, and free!

The Linux Shell, also known as a “Terminal”

So, a shell is a program that takes user commands and sends them to the operating system to process, then displays the results.

The shell is the most important component of Linux. Its distributions are GUI (graphical user interface) based, but Linux is primarily a command-line operating system (command line interface).

In this tutorial, we’ll go through the fundamental commands here that we use in the Linux shell.

linux commands for beginners :–

There are some linux commands for beginners :–

  • Open Terminal n Ubuntu press CTRL+ALT+T or ALT+F2

linux commands for beginners :–

1. pwd : The “pwd” command can be used to determine which directory you are in. : To see what files are in the directory you’re in, use the “ls” command.

3. cd : Use the “cd” command to go to a directory.

4. mkdir & rmdir : If you need to create a folder, use the mkdir command. Use rmdir to delete a directory. 

5. touch : To make a file, use the touch command.

 6. rm : Use the rm command to delete files and directories. & –help : To know more about a command and how to use it, use the man command.

8. cp : Use the cp command to copy files through the command line.

9. mv : Use the mv command to move files through the command line. 

10. locate : The locate command is use to locate a file in a Linux system

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